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Transducer play an important role in the area of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process ought to be converted in one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.

It really is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is changed into an electrical energy.

Varieties of transducer:

There are two kinds of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers

Active transducers: torque transducer is a device which converts the given non-electricity into electricity by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the most useful examples of the transducers

Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical power by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer would be the examples for that Passive transducers.

The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (like quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied to the structure, it produces an electrical charge and, when an electrical field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” hails from the Greek word for pressure.

Piezo Transducer:

A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any sort of piezo mechanism can be called compression load cell. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and thus can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The benefit of a piezo speaker over a magnetically driven speaker is based on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness of the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.

Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be according to piezoelectrics. In cases like this, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while decreasing the input power concurrently, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.

Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:

In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is typically employed to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are generally operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.

Piezo resistive sensors:

Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very commonly used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used together with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to produce a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in hkjrzk energy and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great option for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when cutting edge performance is necessary.

Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:

If operated underneath the right conditions, the newest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.

Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:

Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great choice for active vibration cancellation.

Here, a vibration sensor must provide the controller the proper information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration through providing the correct amplitude and phase output towards the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be load cell, configured to respond to strain or pressure.

Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:

Any type of rapid actuation can cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it can cause. In the event these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system having a counter mass could be integrated and driven having a signal in the opposite phase. With some fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out and the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is usually used in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.

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